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  • 美国大选选举观察员的历史?有何作用?

       日期:2020-10-15     来源:小E英语    评论:0    
    核心提示:The History and Role of Poll Watchers in US Elections美国大选选举观察员的历史和作用Republican Party activists are urging supporters across the United Stat

    The History and Role of Poll Watchers in US Elections

    美国大选选举观察员的历史和作用

    Republican Party activists are urging supporters across the United States to closely watch early voting sites and ballot drop boxes in the weeks before elections next month.

    共和党积极分子正敦促全美各地的支持者在下个月大选的前几周密切关注早期投票点和投票箱。

    The party's effort expands on the traditional duties of election observers.

    该党的这一措施扩大了选举观察员的传统职责。

    The custom of "poll watching" may take on new meaning this year with an increase in mail-in voting because of the COVID-19 health crisis. At the same time, President Donald Trump claims that mail voting can lead to cheating. Trump is seeking re-election as the Republican candidate.

    由于新冠肺炎健康危机,“选举监票”的传统可能会随着今年邮寄投票的增加而具有新的含义。与此同时,川普总统声称,邮寄投票会导致作弊。川普作为共和党候选人正寻求连任。

    What is poll watching?

    什么是选举观察?

    Poll watchers have been part of U.S. elections dating back to the 18th century. Their activities are controlled by state laws and local rules. Members of both major political parties keep an eye on the voting - and each other - to make sure things go smoothly.

    早在18世纪,选举观察员就一直是美国大选的一部分。他们的活动受到了各州法律和地方法规的控制。两大主要政党的成员都密切关注投票,并监督彼此以确保选举顺利进行。

    State laws call observers inside polling stations different things. States also may ask them to do different things. In some areas, poll "watchers" are different from "challengers," who can point out people they suspect are not legal voters. In other states, poll watchers also do the challenging.

    各州法律对投票站内的观察员称谓不同。各州也可能会要求他们做不同的事情。在某些地区,选举“观察员”和“质疑者”不同,后者可以指认他们怀疑的人士不是合法选民。在其它州,选举观察员也行使质疑的职责。

    Other rules set limits on how close party supporters can stand outside polling stations.

    还有规定对政党支持者在投票站外可以站得多近设定了限制。

    What are the rules?

    都有什么规定?

    Rules on who can "watch" voting, and the powers given to these observers, differ from state to state. In Pennsylvania, for example, poll watchers can observe the election - checking turnout and voting machines -- and also challenge voters by taking their concerns to election officials. However, the challengers generally are barred from talking directly with voters, or from making baseless claims that slow down voting.

    关于谁可以“观察”投票的规则,以及给予这些观察员的权力,各州各不相同。比如,在宾夕法尼亚州,选举观察员可以观察选举,检查投票人数和投票机,并通过将担忧告诉选举官员来质疑选民。但是,这些质疑者通常不能跟选民直接对话,也不能发表毫无根据的言论来拖慢投票速度。

    Requirements for poll watchers also differ. They usually are supposed to be registered voters. In some states, they must be approved before the vote by election officials. The state of North Carolina requires that poll workers be of "good moral character."

    对选举观察员的要求也有所不同。他们通常应该是注册选民。在某些州,他们必须在投票开始前得到选举官员的批准。北卡罗莱纳州要求选举观察员必须具有“良好品格。”

    Observers also are permitted by law in states that hold elections mostly by mail. In Oregon, for example, the law says parties and candidates can sponsor observers to watch election workers open ballots and count them. But these observers must behave in a way that "will not interfere with an orderly procedure."

    在那些主要通过邮寄方式举行选举的州,法律也允许观察员的存在。例如,俄勒冈州法律规定,政党和候选人可以资助观察员,让他们观看选举工作人员的开票和计票。但是这些观察员的行事方式不得干扰有序的程序。

    Supporters of parties and candidates may stand outside polling stations with signs and other political advertising, an activity known as "electioneering." But laws governing these activities also differ from one state to the next. Generally, these supporters must keep a distance from the entrance.

    政党和候选人的支持者可以携带标语和其它政治广告站到投票站外,这项活动被称为“竞选活动”。但管理这些活动的法律也因州而异。一般来说,这些支持者必须与投票站入口保持一定距离。

    Are guns permitted?

    是否允许携枪?

    In a year in which protesters and armed militias clashed, some voting rights activists fear a return of armed groups showing up outside polling stations.

    在这个示威者和武装民兵发生冲突的年份,有些投票权活动人士担心武装组织会再次出现在投票站外。

    In some states, including Pennsylvania, Michigan, North Carolina, Wisconsin and Virginia, people can carry guns openly in public. There are no laws in those states directly barring people from carrying weapons into polling stations.

    在宾夕法尼亚州、密歇根州、北卡罗来纳州、威斯康星州和弗吉尼亚州等一些州,人们可以在公共场合公开携枪。这些州并无法律直接禁止人们携带武器进入投票站。

    Yet state and federal laws make it illegal for anyone to try to intimidate voters.

    然而州和联邦法律规定,任何人企图恐吓选民都是违法的。

    Voting rights organizations say they will have thousands of lawyers ready to intervene with local officials or seek court orders to stop such activity.

    投票权组织表示,他们将会有成千上万名律师准备与地方官员交涉,或寻求法院明令禁止这类活动。

    I'm Ashley Thompson.

    阿什利·汤普森为你播报。

     
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